Republic of Uzbekistan
Capital – Tashkent city. Republic of Uzbekistan is located in the middle of Central Asia, mainly between Amudarya and Sirdarya rivers. It borders with 5 neighbor republics: Kyrgyzstan in north-east, Kazakhstan in north-west, Tajikistan in south-east, Turkmenistan in south-west, and in south with Afghanistan.
Uzbekistan is located far from oceans and other natural reservoirs. That is why climate in Uzbekistan is hot, extremely dry, and in other words continental. Continental climate is expressed in strong contrasts between day and night, summer and winter temperatures.
Uzbekistan – the country of ancient culture and architecture. Architects of East had always astonished travelers and merchants passing through The Great Silk Road with magnificence and beauty of their works. Cities like Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva are called pearls of East for their beauty. There are more than 4000 historical monuments in Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan has rich history, tracing its roots for several thousand years. Only for the last half century, scientists found several places of Stone Age inhabitance. The most famous Stone Age inhabitance places are “Kulbulak” ,“Obi Rahmon”, “Teshiktash” and “Amankutan”.
Starting from 800 year B.C., Central Asia experienced emerge and cease of various ancient nations, cities and empires such as Bactria, Sogdiana and Khorezm, state of Akhmenids, Alexander the Great, the state of Selevkids (Greco-Bactrian), the empires of Parfians and Kushans.
In the 6th century B.C. Central Asia was conquered by king Kir, the founder of Persian nation. In 330 year B.C. Persians were crushed by Alexander the Great. Instead of Persians came the Greco-Bactrians, which kingdom included vast territory of the present Uzbekistan. The Kushans Empire subsisted in I-III centuries of Common Era.
At the end of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th, Arab conquerors captured Khorezm (Khiva) and Sogdiana (Samarkand, Bukhara). In 999 AC, Karakhanid’s dynasty, which accepted Islam took place of Samanids in Samarkand and Bukhara. In the beginning of the 13th century, Central Asia was conquered by Chengiz-Khan.
In 1370, outstanding military leader Temur becomes the ruler of Mavarounnahr. During Temur’s and his heirs’ (Shahruh, Ulugbek and Bobur) administration periods, great developments have taken place in field irrigation, art, handicraft, trade, literature and science in Samarkand and in all Mavarounnahr. Periods of economic prosperity took turns with periods of economic disaster because of endless wars and conquests, which were accompanied with extermination of whole cities and villages.
The enormous amount of historical monuments has been preserved since the days when Samarkand was the capital of Temur’s empire. Cities of modern Uzbekistan, including Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Shakhrisabz and Tashkent are symbols of ancient oriental beauty.